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Top: human heart ventricular trabeculae (arrows). Bottom, left: cardiac action potentials recorded from a human ventricular trabecula in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic moxifloxacin.  Bottom, right: contraction/relaxation of human ventricular trabecula in the presence of increasing concentrations of nifedipine


Human DRG neurons neurotoxicity assay:

1.  Cell viability

2.  Apoptosis/necrosis

3.  Neurite extension/degeneration

Cardiac Safety & Toxicity

Viable human heart

1. Drug-induced  arrhythmia: sharp electrode recording of membrane        potential  for assessment of:

     I. EAD

     II. APD30, APD60 and APD90

     III. Short Term Variability

     IV. Triangulation

2.  Drug-induced positive/negative inotropic effects: contraction/relaxation    in ventricular trabeculae

3.  Drug-induced hyper-/hypo-tension:   contraction/relaxation in coronary  artery rings

4.  Drug-induced valvulopathy

5.  Myocardial cytotoxicity

Drug Safety Services